The Eureka-Rebecca compromises: another look at special operations security during World War II.

one month right after world War II, Main General Sir Colin Gubbins, theChief of the British Unique Operations Executive (SOE), requested thatthe Washington Headquarters of the American office associated with Strategic Solutions (OSS) search its captured German document collection regarding informationregarding German wartime knowledge involving SOE as well as OSS secret operations. Boththe SOE and the special Operations Branch of the OSS ran hundreds ofclandestine operations during the war, parachuting agents way behindenemy lines. Yet, SOE's discovery within 1944 in the German securityservices' infiltration involving SOE's Holland agent network,together using the starting associated with acrimonious postwar debates aboutSOE's failure in Holland, necessitated Gubbins' investigationinto German records. (1)

OSS Washington forwarded Gubbins' request for the OSS London office, then in the technique of consolidating its operational files with the war now over. the London office produced four captured documents that handled Allied special operations, yet not one involving the products proved pertinent in order to Gubbins' specific inquiries. one of those documents, however, might have interested any 1 of the actual clandestine solutions during the war had it been forwarded with their air operations personnel. The document indicated that will German army intelligence had issued a secret directive on the British Particular Air Support (SAS). (2) Even though the directive consisted simply of a general, two-page narrative in SAS tactics, it indicated German familiarity using a unique piece of electronic equipment carried by simply SAS, SOE, as well as OSS teams--a compact radar navigation homing beacon which those groups had considered a new closely held secret. The Particular Allies nicknamed this radar set Eureka, a new Greek term meaning, "I possess located it."

Recently declassified OSS records show the normal employment ofEureka radar beacons inside clandestine drop zone (DZ) operations. (3)Allied particular operations groups--the SAS, SOE, and also the OSS--relied uponportable Eureka sets in all theaters because the ground-based,pre-positioned radar beacons enabled Allied aircraft, designed with theRebecca counterpart, in order to find agent and supply DZs far behind enemylines. Yet, deploying the extremely classified beacons inside enemy territoryheld substantial danger since these sets, if captured, could beactivated in order to lure unsuspecting airborne agents along with commando teams tocertain capture. Although OSS documentation discloses the training,employment, as well as extreme secrecy surrounding Eureka-Rebecca system, theserecords additionally reveal which Allied particular operations commands neglected toweigh the possible consequences whenever agents lost Eureka sets eitheraccidentally throughout nighttime airdrops, or directly towards the enemy. (4)Furthermore, the actual postwar inquiries straight into SOE's Holland disasterconfirmed what might have been suspected--yet not necessarily circulated throughoutthe unique operations community--that as early as 1942 the particular Germans hadcaptured as well as activated Eureka beacons so as to manipulate Allied DZs.Due to these gaps throughout operational security, Allied commands continued toissue Eureka beacons throughout the war without modifications which wouldlimit their own vulnerability to assist expand enemy exploitation.

More than sixty a extended time later, historical assessments involving enemy technical countermeasures in order to Allied special operations tend to concentrate upon German Funkspiele or perhaps "radio games," which often deceived Allied special operations headquarters through the playback of captured agent radio transmitters. This particular paper builds upon which premise and indicates that, in some cases, German manipulation of the Allies' Eureka-Rebecca system couldn't just theoretically produce an effective countermeasure, but tend to furthermore compromise an essential layer of Allied safety and provide Berlin your initial, technical capability to infiltrate Allied unique operations. German manipulation of Eureka-Rebecca could theoretically simulate special operations DZs to establish any trap for that capture of Allied personnel, also to help provide a foundation for that subsequent radio video games whose devastating impact ended therefore many clandestine operations. (5)

Early Compromises in the Eureka-Rebecca System

After nov France throughout 1940, London steadily introducedclandestine operations to the European Theater to destabilize theGerman occupation. Operations through air, however, had delivered just a fewagents simply by 1942. This kind of modest start reflected not only the beginnings of anew type of warfare, but additionally the particular constraints of effectively deliveringagents simply by air through the restricted full-moon time period accessible each month.In 1941, following the Air Ministry's substantial good results withdefensive radar development and also employment through the Battle involving Britain,the British Telecommunications Analysis establishment (TRE) developed aconcept employing any small ground-based radar beacon that will enhancedclandestine air navigation, specially from night. TRE personnelnicknamed the bottom part Eureka, as well as the airborne counterpartRebecca, and also began developing test sets regarding a couple of associated with the first Britishspecial operations. (6)

London fielded preliminary versions of an "Mk I" Eureka radar beacon inside Holland as well as Czechoslovakia, where the devices first fell into German hands. in March 1942, your British Royal Air Force (RAF) dropped 3 SOE-trained Czech agents directly into German-occupied Czechoslovakia. This team, code-named Out Distance, carried certainly one of these beacons. Out Distance's special mission required the placement of the Eureka next to the Czech Skoda steel works, as well occasion producing weaponry for your German armed forces. The Actual RAF planned to transmit bombers to home-in around the beacon, and also destroy the factory. Similar To a new number of the Czech teams dropped directly into Czechoslovakia in 1942, however, Out Distance found conditions there extremely hostile, and two associated with its 3 members quickly fell victim to the Gestapo (German Secret State Police). The Czech farmer subsequently found their own Eureka beacon concealed on his farm and turned it over to the Gestapo. (7) Shortly after the neutralization of Out Distance, SS Lt. Gen. Reinhard Heydrich, the former Gestapo chief recently appointed acting Reichsprotektor associated with Czechoslovakia, wrote Adolf Hitler's aide, Martin Bormann. Throughout his memo, Heydrich reviewed the recent capture involving clandestine equipment in Czechoslovakia, and also drew a link to end up being able to reports he had read about comparable "modern equipment" German intelligence just lately discovered throughout Holland. (8)

In March 1942, the particular counterintelligence services of the German armed forces substantial command, your Abwehr, began Operation "North Pole," a long-term penetration and also manipulation of SOE's Holland agent network. by 1944 the actual Abwehr within Holland, below the particular direction involving Maj. H. J. Giskes, would capture greater than fifty British agents, most of Dutch nationality, that London had returned in to end up being able to the Netherlands for sabotage operations. Inside certainly one of the particular longest and many disastrous radio games in the War, the Abwehr teamed using the German SS security Service (SD), to push captured agents to radio false messages for you to SOE's Dutch section within London. These People intended to deceive SOE directly into continuing additional DZ operations that will additionally fall beneath German control. Berlin could then neutralize or even manipulate Allied clandestine operations in the particular country. (9) in may 1942, Giskes' team, with most the assistance of Dutch police impersonating resistance agents, captured SOE's Beetroot team in their particular DZ, alongside with the team's Eureka beacon. SOE had recently trained both Dutch operatives regarding Beetroot upon the Eureka system, so as that they can then instruct some other agents in Holland on its use. German radio experts, once they first analyzed Beetroot's Eureka, concluded the actual set was some kind involving aircraft beacon device; nevertheless the Abwehr failed to comprehend its correct use until told by Beetroot's agents under interrogation. The Actual German Abwehr essentially received any description of the Eureka's operation by experts particularly educated to educate Eureka use to be able to Allied agents. (10)

The Eureka beacon presented an original problem with regard to Allied designers, because the secret system had being employed behind enemy lines. While the range and also frequencies in the Eureka system remained classified until the finish with the war, your Allies considered your fact that their agents used such a device, secret by means of nearly just about all of 1943. For You To steer clear of compromise of Eureka beacons, therefore, Britain's TRE engineered security features to the beacon design. But these protective measures failed in both Czechoslovakia and also Holland. The Actual Eureka's passive frequency design (the beacons activated only if prompted simply by helpful aircraft emitting Rebecca's interrogating frequency), intended for you to deny enemy electronic "direction-finding" operations against active beacons, could show irrelevant. With Regard To instance, your Gestapo captured intact Out Distance's Eureka hidden away with a farm; as well as the Abwehr's radio game with SOE place Beetroot's DZ (and their Eureka) directly within German hands. Throughout each cases, the actual assumed electronic countermeasure issues against a passive system like the Eureka never materialized. Inside addition, your insufficient an agent's supplemental flashlight signal, typically required in order to assure approaching Allied aircraft the beacon was in helpful hands, proved irrelevant in Holland. Upon his initial try to make use of the Eureka within Holland, Giskes took the actual beacon to a recognized Allied DZ, and waited until late evening to activate the particular set. Giskes' team heard an approaching RAF aircraft, but in zero way sighted the plane inside the pitch-black sky and also by simply no means attempted a supplemental flashlight signal; yet Giskes would receive the drop of six Allied equipment containers intended regarding Dutch resistance. Giskes' first employment involving his captured Eureka needed absolutely no supplemental security whatsoever. (11)

Giskes continued to always be able to capture further Eureka radar beacons until 1944, when London had deduced the particular German penetration associated with its Holland agent network. (12) In Your Program Of this period German counterintelligence managed as numerous as thirty false DZs inside Holland to entrap parachuting agents. The Particular Abwehr's appropriate employment associated with captured Eurekas from many of these DZs permitted the actual continued deception involving SOE's Dutch section inside London. Eureka manipulation became a new ruse critical to the success of Berlin's major deception effort against Allied special operations--the subsequent playback associated with captured radio sets, the disastrous impact involving which is widely acknowledged today. After London's postwar investigation to the Holland debacle, British intelligence could certainly conclude the Eureka was compromised. But during the War, there appears to have been no recommendation to change the frequencies of latest Eureka production models, and Eureka technology carried simply no warning concerning its possible compromise when in early 1943 design plans for your British Eureka-Rebecca system arrived in Washington regarding mass production simply by American industry. (13)

In early 1943, Britain's TRE briefed U.S. Army Signal Corps officers about the operation of the Eureka-Rebecca system. Your Signal Corps saw immediate use for your Eureka beacon in U.S. airborne operations, and arranged priority shipment towards the War Department regarding style plans and samples in the British Eureka beacon and in addition the airborne interrogating component, Rebecca. (14) However your War Department had currently tested the Eureka-Rebecca system. The few months earlier the Signal Corps had ordered one regarding its TRE-trained Signal Corps officers to fly through London to Gibraltar for you to brief the OSS, which in turn planned for you to employ the actual Eureka beacon for the particular impending November 1942 Allied landings inside Algeria, North Africa, codenamed Torch. Within late October, as Capt. Gordon Browne regarding the OSS, sat with his communications publish in Gibraltar, he received orders to attend the secret meeting at the British governor's Gibraltar residence. On his arrival, the Signal Corps officer laid out an Mk I Eureka beacon about the governor's living-room floorboards and instructed Browne on its use. Browne's mission was strategic: he ended up being to courier the particular Eureka for you to Morocco and, shortly ahead of the November 8 invasion, smuggle the key device straight into Algeria along with activate the actual beacon near airfields just outside involving Oran. U.S. Army Air Forces (AAF) C-47 transport aircraft originating coming from England had been then in order to home-in on the Eureka beacon, and drop American paratroopers to always be able to capture the airfields from Vichy French forces. (15)

One month after the Torch landings, Browne sent a new copy regarding his after-action record towards the OSS chief, Col. (later General) William A. Donovan. Browne suggested immediate adoption with the Eureka beacon for OSS clandestine DZ operations. Throughout Washington, Donovan forwarded Browne's document to become able to his communications branch. These officers also recommended OSS acquisition in the Eureka system, along with warned that "Because in the intense secrecy surrounding this apparatus," OSS procurement ought for you to be handled just at the highest channels. Eureka secrecy explains why OSS Washington had not formerly learned of the device, however its inquires soon found out that the Signal Corps ended up being already examining British Eureka sets obtained by means of a new extremely classified procurement project. Donovan's staff subsequently recommended against duplication regarding effort, leaving the actual Signal Corps with sole responsibility with regard to procurement. (16)

The Torch landings, however, introduced towards the Americans the difficulties that they as well would experience attempting for you to ensure Eureka security. Browne's after-action document described the particular near-capture of his Eureka simply by Vichy French forces. An unfortunate risk, since bad weather over the Bay of Biscay had previously dispersed the C-47 paratroop transports; most aircraft became lost, and also none came shut sufficient to trigger the particular Eureka beacon and establish any radar hyperlink to the Oran DZ. (17) Lost pilots diverted their particular C-47s for you to emergency landing fields across much with the North African coast. The few aircraft landed farther west in neutral Spanish Morocco, where Spanish authorities interned your planes and their crews. The Particular crew of among these C-47s failed in order to destroy the aircraft's instruments before internment--instruments which probably included an earlier version of Rebecca. Neither the particular Signal Corps nor presumably Britain's TRE learned with the feasible compromise. (18) Nevertheless, German intelligence quickly afterward captured the Rebecca set in Europe. Allied bombers located in England conducted numerous special operations and agent provide operations more than Holland and, according towards the Abwehr's Main Giskes, throughout early 1943 Luftwaffe (German airforce) technicians pulled a Rebecca set from a crashed British bomber. Moreover, through mid-1943 Allied ground crews received orders to outfit conventional bombers with just about all the Rebecca radar set. while this addition increased operational efficiency--aircraft pulled from scheduled bombing missions to aid agent supply operations would not require time-consuming Rebecca retrofitting--it additionally elevated the actual odds of Rebecca compromise throughout emergency landings powering enemy lines. (19)

These early-war compromises continued. Throughout the July 1943 Allied landings inside Sicily, American airborne as well as British airborne and also SAS units employed early forms regarding radar beacon technology. Whereas the British employed early models regarding their particular Eureka beacons, your Americans modified existing versions with the U.S. AAF's Mk III IFF ("identification, friend or perhaps foe") radar system because American-produced Eurekas were not but available. Allied fighter and bomber units typically fitted the actual IFF system in the forward sections of their aircraft, so that airfields along with ships could identify friendly aircraft. Since the particular IFF and also Eureka beacon shared similar operating principles, American airborne units within Sicily employed active IFF sets as interim ground navigation beacons. but the safety of this technique was in doubt too. By Simply the end involving 1943, Allied intelligence reports via both the European as well as Pacific theaters indicated that will German along with Japanese forces had captured your Mk III IFF system. Worse, these were mimicking the system to always be able in order to deceive Allied forces. (20) These kind of examples suggest that through the early stages of U.S. Eureka production the particular enemy had already developed an ability to manipulate certainly not only the early British Eureka models captured in Czechoslovakia and Holland, but other kinds of emerging radar beacon technology as well. When so, even short-term security might are already impossible for you to maintain regarding classified radar systems meant with regard to use inside, as well as over, enemy territory.

U.S. Eureka Beacon Development and Employment

In early 1943, London forwarded the style plans and also trials regarding the British Eureka-Rebecca system towards the U.S. War Department, which then ordered your Signal Corps to always be able to procure the identical style manufactured with the latest U.S. technology. Nevertheless your momentum for a U.S. Eureka-Rebecca system additionally originated in yet another source. Secretary involving War Henry Stimson was a proponent for that fastest feasible style along with fielding of recent radar systems. Moreover, Stimson's cousin had recently established the new radiation laboratory, or "Rad Lab," at the Massachusetts Institute associated with Technologies (MIT). Your Rad Lab worked using the Signal Corps and its contractors to evaluate the feasibility regarding emerging radar technology, and among Rad Lab's projects dealt using the conversion of the particular British Eureka beacon for you to U.S. specifications. (21) Stimson's link with just about all the Rad Lab provided assistance for a U.S. Eureka from the highest level, as well as on no much less than one occasion the particular Secretary associated with War personally promoted the actual Eureka beacon with a 1943 Thanksgiving supper with the leading OSS operations executive. (22)

U.S. and British Eurekas would share five frequencies for standardization. Transmitter and receiver frequencies of each models (including their particular Rebecca counterparts) began at 214 megacycles per second (Mc/sec), and increased at 5 Mc/sec increments for you to 234 Mc/sec. Although the actual early Mk I Eureka featured just one frequency, the newer Eureka and also Rebecca sets could transmit or get about just about any one of the five predetermined frequencies as long because the transmitting and also receiving frequencies differed by at least the five Mc/sec increment. The Actual total frequency mix provided twenty feasible transmitting-receiving modes, thereby providing a new modicum regarding security. (23) Nevertheless most military radios of the time, such as your clandestine "suitcase" radios carried by agents, would accept numerous removable "crystals," or frequencies, that will offered many much more frequency choices--the Eureka radar beacon do not. However throughout April 1943 an Allied Mixed Communications Board, or even CCB, found out that the safety limitations associated with Eureka's five fixed frequencies posed absolutely no long-term safety vulnerability by concluding, incorrectly, the Eureka would simply be employed "until something better will be available." (24)

The subsequent month, a new joint U.S. Army-Navy radio frequency coordination meeting essentially agreed with the CCB, but also for a different reason. Any time a new U.S. Navy representative found out that 2 involving the Eureka's frequencies overlapped individuals allocated to a future communications system, he dismissed your issue stating, the particular "Eureka would become abandoned in about a yr because regarding the bonus together with which it can be utilized through the enemy." (25) Your implication had been which either a Eureka beacon might be as well easily captured and turned back against Allied forces, or that the Eureka's fixed frequency allocation would be quickly discovered as well as emitted back about enemy countermeasure systems, thereby confusing the Eureka or Rebecca components. A New weakness in OSS and also SOE security policy would later compound this problem. In December 1944, OSS air operations personnel adopted a new British practice employed throughout Italy and Yugoslavia in which utilized simply a pair of of the Eureka-Rebecca frequencies (214 Mc/Sec & 219 Mc/Sec). It has been thought these a couple of channels worked the best, along with practically twenty OSS teams sent into northern Italy carried Eureka beacons confined to those two frequencies. If German intelligence captured one of these sets (as they did, to be discussed later) they could deduce the particular Eureka frequencies used through the vast majority of your OSS teams within Italy. (26)

Perhaps to minimize the particular vulnerability of the Eureka's fixed frequencies, your U.S. Eurekas did feature a new "Morse" key. The key interrupted Eureka transmissions in short bursts that will visually simulated international Morse code on the Rebecca's radar screen. War Department manuals issued using each Eureka set officially advocated use with the Morse crucial feature in order that aircrew monitoring your Rebecca screen could discern different Eureka sets that might be within close proximity. Following your war, however, MIT suggested the Signal Corps added the actual Morse important feature to avoid enemy manipulation with the Eureka; for the enemy to be able to credibly playback any captured Eureka, that they would require to know the one or perhaps two letter Morse code assigned to that certain mission. Perhaps lending weight for the latter concern, just about all U.S. Eurekas adopted the British inclusion of the self-destruct detonation system to always be able to insure against your beacon's capture. (27)

In 1943 the actual OSS sent their own initial Eureka-Rebecca shipments overseas. Early on, these shipments accompanied classified cipher equipment, transported simply by air along with protected by simply armed guard. By Simply 1944, however, trucks delivered Eureka beacons in the OSS Northern Virginia warehouse to Baltimore Harbor, along with paper receipts by yourself tracked Eureka shipments by sea to become able to Europe, the particular Mediterranean, as well as India. the OSS continued to track Eurekas within these theaters, including their own use behind enemy lines. (28) once Eureka sets arrived in theater, special operations training policy required that will OSS, SOE, along with SAS teams get training on his or her use. by June 1944, SOE determined which whereas the new as well as more simply designed Eureka models necessary just a one-hour lecture, agents also needed practical area instruction. (29) Which yr SOE instituted a ten-day DZ "reception committee" university in England. Among other topics, your university covered the actual clandestine "S-Phone" for ground for you to air voice communication, DZ ground lighting patterns as well as Morse flashlight signals to end up being able to aid navigation and supply security confirmation for approaching aircraft, plus it allocated 3 days regarding Eureka instruction as well as hands-on operation. security instruction for that beacon took forty-five minutes, and also presumably covered Eureka's low-probability regarding intercept, Morse crucial feature, and furthermore the set's self-destruction mechanism. (30) OSS personnel in England furthermore attended this school, however OSS commands elsewhere needed to develop their particular DZ training for each American OSS along with foreign national agents. OSS radio experts throughout Italy, with regard to example, located the particular Eureka beacon to become the simple device upon that to train American students, however that these people had little guidance about the appropriateness of instructing their own Italian agents on your classified beacon. Nevertheless, that they properly assumed that training foreign agents to help make use of the actual Eureka would correspond with any existing policy about the matter. Since one last precaution, the particular OSS issued a certificate to every team receiving any Eureka beacon. Your certificate required which "precautions be studied to become able to avoid compromise involving the beacon," of course, if a team were needed to destroy their beacon, these folks were to radio the big event with their OSS base. (31)

OSS DZ policy based your operational safety in the Eureka upon the safety of the DZ perimeter, and additionally this policy required the thing that will was in practice an optimistic ten mile Eureka operating distance through known enemy positions. (32) but a promising new concept known as "blind use" with the Eureka soon complicated this conservative approach to DZ security. Inside December 1944, an OSS air operations officer throughout Italy found that the pinpoint accuracy of the Eureka in night often did not require supplemental navigational guidance for an approaching aircraft, typically inside the kind of DZ ground fire patterns or perhaps Morse code flashlight signals, practices which could draw enemy attention. Eliminating these visual aides gave greater cover to become able to clandestine DZ operations, but additionally sacrificed important visual signals in which gave final security confirmation the DZ was in helpful hands. yet phrase of "blind use" accuracy arrived in London, exactly where SOE expressed interest within the procedure as late as April 1945. (33) In the Program Of this same period, however, your U.S. AAF informed OSS air operations personnel that AAF navigators monitoring their Rebecca radar screens were having difficulty deciphering your Eureka's Morse code transmissions. Unlike audible Morse radio transmissions, Morse codes keyed through the Eureka beacon had to be viewed as pulses around the Rebecca's three-inch diameter radar screen, exactly where transmission speed around the Eureka key compounded the particular navigators' sight limitations using your small screen. Problems monitoring Morse transmissions in Rebecca, together with mounting reviews that will Eureka operators on the ground were apparently tiring with the beacon's Morse keying requirement, may explain why Morse important safety for your Eureka-Rebecca system fell into disuse upon each ends of the system; and also this with a moment when "blind use," getting currently dispensed with almost all the ground fire patterns and Morse flashlight signal safety checks, would manage to demand its use. (34)

An agent could jump using a Eureka beacon attached with his parachute harness or, as ended up being usually the actual case, unique operations commands could parachute Eurekas in supply containers to agent teams upon request by radio. Your most typical cause associated with lost Eurekas occurred during night DZ supply drops. Mis-dropped containers as well as substantial winds routinely dispersed supplies, as well as references to end up being able to accidental Eureka losses tend to be prevalent in OSS, SOE, and SAS radio messages as well as after-action reports. (35) Radio messages in addition demonstrate the efforts created to become able to keep your Eureka-Rebecca system out associated with German hands. 1 French resistance group had simply no choice yet to search pertaining to hours, merely 1,000 yards coming from a sizable German encampment, for their miss-dropped Eureka. (36) Almost per year later within Norway, right after OSS Major William Colby searched the actual wreckage of the crashed OSS transport aircraft, he radioed his record to England and, at the end of the message, confirmed that the aircraft's Rebecca ended up destroyed in the crash, an observation apparently made to always be able to ensure that your Rebecca was not good towards the Germans. (37) In spite of these precautions, apparent examples associated with late-war losses associated with Eureka beacons to the enemy resulted from the capture involving OSS Team Dawes from the SS within Czechoslovakia; coming from the capture of OSS Operational Team Tacoma through the SS within northern Italy; and from the actual apparent discovery of OSS Operational group Battle's hidden radio equipment as well as Eureka through Cossacks on the Italian-Slovenian border. (38) With the same occasion these teams had been operational, U.S. AAF navigators in OSS provide missions to northern Italy carried special pre-printed types for you to record Eureka-Rebecca performance. in late February, 1 particular navigator couldn't find the Eureka "blip" on his Rebecca screen when expected. He noted upon his Eureka-Rebecca form, however, in which through the mission he "picked up several [blips] however they just about all run up & along the trace line." He appeared being receiving multiple Eureka signals from the ground where there must have been none. (39)

German Intelligence as well as the Eureka-Rebecca System

OSS debriefs filed following your war through members of your captured OSS Operational Team team reveal which their own German interrogators knew much about the OSS command construction throughout Italy. While Operational Group Tacoma's radio operator later said involving his interrogation simply by an SS officer, "they knew greater than I would concerning the outfit." He added which just before his interrogation, the particular SS officer placed his a couple of OSS radios along with Eureka radar beacon on the table facing him, within an apparent mocking gesture. (40) Berlin destroyed a big part of its intelligence records following your war, yet those remaining documents declare that German intelligence organizations possessed a sound understanding of Allied special operations. Pertaining To example, Berlin knew the place of many OSS coaching schools as well as bases inside England and Italy, what they are called of pertinent OSS officers as well as instructors, along with even understood the basic operation with the OSS particular operations airbase in Harrington, England. (41) Your Germans furthermore captured vast quantities of Allied equipment containers parachuted behind his or her lines. The Particular loss of equipment had been seemingly so extensive that one SOE agent captured in Paris noted, inside his postwar memoir, the pile of captured parachuted equipment containers consequently big it absolutely was impossible to end up being able to ignore because he ended up being led into the actual Abwehr's Paris headquarters. (42)

Once German counterintelligence located particular operations DZs, they would either monitor agent and reception committee activities at those sites, as well as destroy the DZs immediately. one approach employed to eliminate DZs, at exactly the particular same time spread skepticism within the ranks of the actual nearby resistance forces, ended up becoming to parachute German agents onto known DZs. in July 1944, the local French resistance informed Operational Team Louise that will just a day or two earlier Germans, dressed in American uniforms, had jumped on Louise's DZ within an try to surprise as well as destroy the French reception committee. (43) and within Italy, OSS teams radioed his or her commands that will Germans were manning false DZs using routine ground signals, and also probably utilizing captured agent radios to arrange the drops. (44) Berlin employed various other techniques as well. The Abwehr attempted to trace special operations flights via England to western Europe to always be able to estimate the location regarding Allied DZs, along with the amount involving supplies and agent teams dropped in individuals areas. Via a combination associated with radio intercepts along with radar intercepts involving lone aircraft, to routine flight sightings passed towards the pertinent Abwehr offices, they could extrapolate particular operations flight data. (45)

German policy directed which captured "novel or perhaps technically improved" radio devices always be forwarded towards the appropriate technical intelligence office, unless an impending radio game needed their use. Luftwaffe intelligence (OKL Ic) remained the actual primary authority regarding the collection along with dissemination of knowledge related using Allied aircraft, and additionally this included your Eureka-Rebecca system. (46) The Actual first German publication informing front-line intelligence units associated with Eureka beacon specifications has been an OKL Ic every week intelligence newsletter, titled Einzelnachrichten des Ic Dienstes West ("Special Intelligence involving Intelligence Support West," hereafter referred to as Einzelnachrichten). The initial edition associated with Einzelnachrichten to be able to include the Eureka appeared on June 19, 1944, merely fourteen days following Allied airborne units utilized the Eureka to always be able to manual paratroopers with their DZs behind the Normandy beaches. Your newsletter described your Eureka's purpose, range, and also details for example its Morse important feature. Einzelnachrichten added the particular next month that OKL Ic hadn't observed the use of a Eureka simply by "regular" airborne units until the Normandy landings. (47) Within August 1944, the particular newsletter carried the special edition on Allied unique forces operating on the European continent, and repeated the actual Eureka's purpose as a vital unique operations device; it included any diagram of the Eureka, and closely connected the device with the SAS, an observation possibly driven through previously referenced SAS Eureka losses throughout France throughout June 1944. (48) In October, Einzelachrichten included the actual specifications of the overall Eureka-Rebecca system, along with summarized in which "up until now, your total assessment regarding this method hadn't been settled." Possibly the exploitation in the early Eureka-Rebecca devices captured simply by the Abwehr's Main Giskes in your program of 1942 along with 1943 remained incomplete; or perhaps the actual alleged inability associated with Berlin's many intelligence services for you to efficiently exchange info are at fault. (49)

Nevertheless, radio messages sent between any Eureka-equipped special operations team inside France and also its London headquarters seem to indicate an instance the spot where the Luftwaffe assisted German intelligence to counter the Eureka-Rebecca system. About June 5, 1944 an Allied particular forces "Jedburgh" team, codenamed Hugh parachuted into the Indre region involving France. Particular Forces Headquarters (SFHQ) throughout London conceived of the actual three-man Jedburgh teams for you to function as a joint American, British and free French liaison for the French resistance, and to function along with other special forces units, such as the SAS and the OSS Operational Groups. Jedburgh team Hugh was to perform closely with SAS team Bullbasket. Bullbasket had parachuted to the identical location on June 7, having lost their Eureka container through the jump. 3 weeks later, Jedburgh team Hugh radioed SFHQ to inquire by what Hugh assumed had been Allied planes circling within the proximity involving its DZ. SFHQ, however, we had not send any supply aircraft towards the area, and also responded in radio code to Hugh:

Have not a clue whose planes circled ... night 25/6 however think Boche may have Eurekas and have situated these places in this approach Hugh to advise immediately if he'd favor to be able to postpone operation until he finds another ground. (50)

SAS Eureka container losses within June 1944 could have discovered their own way into German hands. The Particular Eureka's preset frequencies would have allowed Luftwaffe aircraft to patrol suspected areas, emit those frequencies upon German radio systems modified to mimic the actual Rebecca component, as well as possibly prompt Eureka beacons within the area in order to identify the direction to end up being able to enemy DZs.

About 8 weeks next the actual September 1944 Allied airborne landings throughout Holland, Einzel-nachrichten contained a unique feature subtitled "New Discoveries about the Employment involving Allied Parachute and Air-Landing Troops." in this issue, OKL Ic charted identified Eureka beacon locations utilized during the airborne operation inside Holland, along with also suspected Eureka beacon areas inside England, in that the beacons aided conventional air traffic control for your countless Allied C-47 aircraft flying in direction of Holland from his or her English airbases. (51) That was during this period associated with time that Berlin considered an unusual countermeasure to Allied radar beacon sites. Prior To your Normandy landings, the actual Allies had delivered Eureka beacons for you to European resistance teams along with instructions to align the actual beacons in a direction that might provide discrete navigation tracks regarding Allied bombers heading for their targets in Germany. (52) Right After the particular invasion, the particular Allies were able to transfer larger and much more effective conventional radar navigation systems to end up being able to liberated regions of France and Belgium for the identical purpose. Within October 1944, OKL Ic satisfied having its personal reconnaissance liaison officers along with with representatives regarding SS Lt. Colonel Otto Skorzeny's commando organization. They Will apparently reached an agreement for the OKL Ic to determine the positioning of Allied radar navigation beacons within France and Belgium, and also pass individuals locations in order to Skorzeny's unit. The Actual commandos would then, while they termed it, "clean out" the actual situated beacon sites, probably giving German cities and military facilities any respite from Allied bombings. Apparently, nothing came with the meeting, yet by the standards reached there, virtually any identified Eureka beacon websites would have been included in Skorzeny's target list. (53) The Actual SS also distributed any directive that included countermeasures against the Eureka. Throughout January 1945, the Gestapo issued comprehensive instructions to SS police and also SS radio intelligence technicians regarding radio countermeasures in order to SAS operations. Suggested countermeasures for you to SAS radios centered upon employing electronic direction-finding tactics against your radios; your thinking here, it appears, had been which if direction-finding proved effective against SAS radios, Eureka beacons in SAS possession would be captured along with the radio sets. (54)

By the conclusion associated with 1944, Berlin had consolidated almost all Allied radar information of interest inside the particular Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM, or National Air Ministry). Your RLM served as Germany's central office for aviation matters, plus it collected info on many Allied radar systems, including details on the Eureka-Rebecca frequency spectrum. It concluded the success of employing captured Eureka beacons for you to deceive Allied special operations, while possible, couldn't be "guaranteed" since of the Eureka's Morse important security feature. The Actual RLM suggested instead that the constant interrogation of Rebecca, simply by ground-based German radio jammers emitting recognized Eureka frequencies, could flood your Rebecca receiver along with false signals. Under these conditions, airborne Rebecca techniques could potentially be rendered incapable of creating a navigation link to the appropriate Eureka beacon. Because of this vulnerability, your RLM concluded which Rebecca was "jammable." (55)


In December 1944, the actual OSS officer accountable for nfs world hack download managing most U.S. Eurekas sent in to northern Italy summed up the actual beacon's security against electronic countermeasures this way:

The Eureka just isn't subject to DF [direction finding] operations by the enemy insofar as is known. Its ultrahigh frequency tends to be able to make such measures impractical by simply other than exact simulation of the Rebecca equipment with the plane, which usually although feasible isn't considered to be able to be within the particular enemy's capabilities with present. (56)

There is actually anecdotal evidence that the Luftwaffe does try to locate Allied unique operations DZs through utilizing German aircraft techniques to simulate Eureka-Rebecca frequencies in order to trigger Eureka beacons; or, at least, your suspicious activity associated with German patrol aircraft caused SFHQ in London to become able to radio unique operations personnel throughout France that the Germans were somehow exploiting captured Eurekas. Berlin in addition identified methods to counter your Eureka, outside regarding traditional direction-finding techniques. German radar experts decided that, by flooding your skies over recognized places of Allied special operations using the proper frequencies, they might theoretically prevent Rebecca-equipped aircraft from establishing the actual appropriate navigation hyperlink to their DZs, thereby denying Allied reinforcement as well as resupply for special operations.

German intelligence for that the majority of part, however, could have approached this process in the more practical manner. While early as 1942, the Abwehr's immediate manipulation involving captured Eureka beacons helped to build the foundation for the capture involving significant numbers involving special operations personnel. (57) whether or otherwise the assumption of Berlin's continued manipulation of the Eureka until the end of the war will be accepted, this one method of deception could declare its place as a ruse used inside the wider deception against Allied intelligence--the capture along with exploitation regarding particular operations teams as well as clandestine agents. The Actual playback involving captured radio transmitters could seriously mislead Allied commands straight into assuming that will their particular special operations were secure and active, when inside fact many associated with the air messages received by Allied headquarters had been deceptive radio games managed through German counterintelligence. The Actual compromise of the Eureka-Rebecca system sometimes played an important component in this deception.


(1.) a brief review of the actual postwar investigation associated with SOE's Holland compromises are available Nigel West, Secret War: the Story of SOE, Britain's Wartime Sabotage Organization (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1992), 99-101.

(2.) Armeeoberkommando I/Ic, Look of S.A.S. Troops inside the Army Location [OSS translation], November 1944, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 292, Folder 1350. This kind of folder contains correspondence relating to end up being able to Gubbins' inquiry.

(3.) This paper draws through three primary sources inside the US National Archives & Records Administration (NARA): Record Team (RG) 226--Records in the Workplace involving Strategic Services; RG 111--Records regarding the Office with the Chief Signal Officer (US Army); and the Captured German Records Collection upon microfilm. OSS as well as Signal Corps record locations are cited through RG #, Entry #, Box #, and Folder # or title. German records are identified simply by "T" microfilm series #, Roll #, as well as Frame #. RG 226 and also RG 111 also contain related British reports received by the OSS along with U.S. Signal Corps. Your developing volume regarding WW II special operations literature often cites your extensive utilisation regarding the Eureka beacon. Examples are generally Ian Wellsted, SAS Along With your Maquis (London: Greenhill Books, 1994); Bruce Heimark, The Particular OSS Norwegian Special Operations group inside WW H (Westport, Ct.: Praeger, 1994); Gerald Schwab, OSS Agents inside Hitler's Heartland (Westport, Ct.: Praeger, 1996); Paul McCue, SAS Operation Bulbasket (London: Leo Cooper, 1996); Freddie Clark, Agents through Moonlight: The Trick History of RAF Tempsford During World War II (Charleston, S.C.: Tempus Publishing Inc., 1999); Thomas Nielsen, Inside Fortress Norway: Bjorn West--Norwegian Guerilla Base, 1944-1945 (Kansas: Sunflower University Or College Press, 2000); M.R.D. Foot, SOE in the low Countries (London: St. Ermin's Press, 2001); along with William Mackenzie, The Key History associated with SOE: The Particular Unique Operations Executive 1940-1945 (2000; reprint, using a foreword simply by M. R. D. Foot, London: St. Ermin's Press, 2002).

(4.) Pertaining To example, in January 1945 the actual OSS London workplace simply made local distribution of the aforementioned German directive, along with the document apparently failed to attract attention to German familiarity with the Eureka radar beacon.

(5.) The Actual impact of productive German radio video games throughout Western Europe can become found in many histories regarding WW II special operations. 1 detailed account is in West, Secret War: the Story regarding SOE, Britain's Wartime Sabotage Organization, 88-104.

(6.) Arthur Roberts, ed., Radar Beacons (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1947), 10-11. "Radar" is an acronym with regard to radio detection and ranging, because it enables your determination of both place and also distance. The word "radar" remained limited until June 1943, when the Allies released the term towards the public. see Louis Brown, A New Radar History of world War II: Technical as well as Military Imperatives (Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing, 1999), 381.

(7.) Callum MacDonald, The Actual Killing of SS Obergruppenfuehrer Reinhard Heydrich (New York: the free Press, 1989), 151-52, 154. SOE-trained Czech teams for example Out distance represented Czech President Benes' exiled government inside London.

(8.) Heydrich for you to Reichsleiter Martin Bormann, Ereignismeldung an den Fuehrer ueber Herrn Reichsleiter Bormann, 4 Could 1942, T-84, Roll 437, Frames 122-25. also observe MacDonald, the Killing regarding SS Obergruppenfuehrer Reinhard Heydrich, 154. 1 surviving member of Out Distance continued to acquire maintain of an additional Czech team, Anthropoid, which in turn upon 27 May 1942 assassinated Reinhard Heydrich.

(9.) H.J. Giskes, London Calling North Pole (London: William Kimber, 1953), passim. Your collapse with the Holland network is found in the official secret good reputation for SOE, lately declassified. See Mackenzie, the Secret History regarding SOE.

(10.) Giskes, London Calling North Pole, 102.

(11.) Ibid., 102.

(12.) in October 1943, 2 Dutch agents escaped German captivity and informed SOE in the German deception. one of their own autobiographies is through Pieter Dourlein, Inside North Pole: Any Secret Agent's Story (London: William Kimber, 1954). Concerning your Czech teams, London deduced their own end through lack of original radio contact, failed German "radio games" along with captured radio sets, along with by means of German propaganda. for example, observe MacDonald, Your Killing associated with SS Obergruppenfuehrer Reinhard Heydrich, 196, 207.

(13.) SOE compartmentalized its operations with regard to safety reasons. So, as well as example, the actual French section failed to are conscious of compromises within the Dutch section. Discover M. R. D. Foot, SOE throughout France: an Account regarding the Work of the British Unique Operations Executive throughout France 1940-1944 (London: The Woman's Majesties Stationary Office, 1966), 343-44. Security compartmentalization in addition disallowed the exchange associated with London's intercepted as well as deciphered Abwehr and also SD radio traffic--transmissions that may have got suggested Abwehr or perhaps SD penetration involving Allied clandestine operations. Observe the particular official history by simply John Curry, The Protection Service 1908-1945: An Official History, by having an introduction by Christopher Andrew (Kew: Public Record Office, 1999), 209.

(14.) Lt. Col. Magee, US Army Signal Corps, Procurement involving British Rebecca Equipment, 23 October 1942, RG 111, Entry 1024, Box 1533, Folder "AN/PPN-2, part two regarding 2." TRE coaching is actually cited within TRE Great Malvern, Progress Document for that Time Period 16th September to 15th October 1942 [British report], Secret, 19 November 1942, RG 111, Entry 1024, Box 1743, Folder "Br. Equipment Reports."

(15.) Carleton S. Coon, a North Africa Story: the Anthropologist as OSS Agent 1941-1943 (Ipswich, Mass.: Gambit, 1980), 39.

(16.) Capt. Browne in order to Col. Donovan, Memo w/attachment, Secret, 15 December 1942; Maj. Lowman in order to Lt. Graveson, Memo, Secret, 11 January 1943; and Maj. Lowman to Col. Donovan, Memo, Secret, 11 January 1943, RG 226, Entry 146, Box 163, Folder 2414.

(17.) Capt. Browne to always be able to Lt. Col. Roberts, 12th Air Force, Memo, Secret, 14 December 1942, RG 226, Entry 146, Box 163, Folder 2414.

(18.) Undated OSS cable # 101750, RG 226, Entry 136, Box 1, Folder 8. This kind of cable shows in which Washington requested the particular Spanish government to "guard" your interned American aircraft. This particular was a dubious precaution, as the Allies would later just take benefit of Madrid's known back links using the German Abwehr in a Leading Secret operation called Mincemeat. Within 1943, Operation Mincemeat planted misleading information about Allied Mediterranean strategy in in order to the hands regarding Spanish intelligence officers who, as expected, forwarded it for the Abwehr. This deception effectively diverted Berlin's interest far from the Allies' planned objective of Sicily. Notice Ewen Montagu, The Actual Man Who Never Has Been (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippencott Co., 1954).

(19.) Giskes, London Calling North Pole, 121. Accounts of even earlier compromises of your baseline Rebecca system is found throughout Brown, A Radar History associated with world War II, 338. Brown's text insures the overall radar countermeasures "war" between your Allies and Axis. TRE's admitted danger throughout adding exactly what it referred to end up being able to as "the special secrecy" in the Rebecca counterpart to conventional bomber navigation suites is in TRE Report, No. 1486 [British Report], Most Secret, 27 June 1943, p. 3, RG 111, Entry 1024, Box 1725, Folder "RB-413.44 RB-1891 IFF MK V."

(20.) Capt. Ogas, IFF Section, US Signal Corps, Performance Tests of AN/APN-2 along with AN/PPN-1, Secret, 5 February 1944, RG 111, Entry 1024, Box 1735, Folder "Beacons." Compromises regarding Mk III IFF are found inside Workplace in the Chief Signal Officer, Airborne monthly Record for November along with December 1943, Secret, 10 February 1944, and Col. Unruh, Air Corps, I.F.F. Triggering by Japanese Night Fighters, Secret, 30 October 1943, RG 111, Entry 1024, Box 1542, Folder "RB 413.44, Ident. #13, component two involving 2." see additionally New Zealand intelligence report on Japanese electronic countermeasures against Allied radar in the Northern Solomons, in Maj. Watson-Munro, Record in R.C.M. in Bougainville Area, Secret, 29 January 1944, RG 111, Entry 1024, Box 1542, Folder "RB 413.44, Ident. #13, part three of 3."

(21.) Jennet Conant, Tuxedo Park: Any Wall Street Tycoon as well as the Secret Palace regarding Science that Changed the actual Program of world War II (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002), passim. Stimson's cousin, Alfred Loomis, established the particular Rad Lab from MIT. MIT, beneath your direction regarding the U.S. National defense Study Committee, assisted the actual War Department assess your feasibility associated with integrating the actual British Eureka style with U.S. radar production technology. The Particular Signal Corps' Camp Evans Signal Laboratory inside Nj-new Jersey then contracted using U.S. business for the manufacture regarding 1000s of "AN/PPN-1" and "AN/PPN-2" Eureka radar beacons. "AN/PPN" was standardized U.S. nomenclature with regard to "Army-Navy/Man Portable-Radar-Navigation." The Actual AN/PPN-1 & 2 could be employed by standard airborne divisions and also the OSS. Your United Kingdom, through international aid, received almost 50% of total U.S. production. Signal Corps correspondence for the initial Eureka procurement phase (January-April 1943) can be seen in RG 111, Entry 1024, Boxes 1533, 1732, & 1770.

(22.) Thomas F. Troy, ed., Wartime Washington: The Key OSS Journal involving James Grafton Rogers 1942-1943 (Frederick, Md.: University Publications involving America, Inc., 1987), 180.

(23.) An AAF transcript for any training film on the Eureka stated that the actual 5 assigned frequencies had been "enough for security." See 18th AAF Base Unit, Rebecca-Eureka Project 1931, Confidential, 19 December 1944, RG 226, Microfilm Series 1642, Roll 47, Frame 848.

(24.) The Particular Allied combined Chiefs involving Staff Mixed Communications Board coordinated the frequency allocation regarding Allied radio and radar systems for you to steer clear of frequency overlap as well as system interference. the CCB also assessed the Eureka's frequencies. see the actual combined Chiefs of Staff, combined Communications Board (CCB), Minutes, 9 April 1943, RG 111, Entry 1024, Box 1119, Folder 334.

(25.) E. M. Roberts, Airborne Section, Workplace in the Chief Signal Officer, Proposed Radio Spectrum Allocations, Secret, 5 may 1943, RG 111, Entry 1024, Box 1769, Folder "RB413.44 RB-2032 Airborne Radar Equipment #2 (2 of 2)."

(26.) see Lt. J. J. Orlan, 2677th Regiment, OSS, Eureka Operations, Secret, 2 December 1944; Lt. Orlan, 2677th Regiment, OSS, Untitled Eureka Morse Code Plan, Secret, 4 December 1944; along with Lt. B. M. Cave to Maj. J. Duncan, 2677th Regiment, OSS, Eurekas inside the Field, 11 January 1945. all 3 documents are located in RG 226, Entry 190, Box 96, Folder 91.

(27.) War Department operating manuals for your U.S. Eureka models are TM 11-1140, Responder-Beacon AN/PPN-1, Confidential, 12 July 1943; TM 11-1140A, Beacon Transmitter-Receiver AN / PPN-1A, Confidential, 10 May 1944; as well as TM 11-1145, Beacon Transmitter-Receiver AN/PPN-2, Confidential, 19 August 1944. MIT assessment with the Morse key feature is in Roberts, ed., Radar Beacons, 11. regarding the Eureka's self-destruct system, observe G. H. McClurg, Workplace of the Chief Signal Officer, Conference in Eureka Mk III, Secret, 22 February 1943, RG 111, Entry 1024, Box 1533, Folder "AN/PPN-1 Component two associated with 2." London recommended detonators for your new Eureka models, and initial considered installation associated with detonators within November 1942, with regards to 6 months right after the first compromises in Czechoslovakia as well as Holland. Discover TRE Fantastic Malvern, Progress Record for your Time Period 16th September in order to 15th October 1942 [British report], Secret, 19 November 1942, RG 111, Entry 1024, Box 1743, Folder "Br. Equipment Reports."

(28.) OSS Message, 12 August 1943, RG 226, Entry 134, Box 211, Folder 1319. Several Eurekas, nevertheless, were lost within shipment. See List, Boxes Missing-Algiers Shipment, 26 October 1944, RG 226, Entry 135, Box 50, Folder 543. Routine OSS shipping receipts from Baltimore to overseas commands are in RG 226, Entry 135, Boxes 543 & 555. Records of the particular 2677th Regiment, OSS, (Italy) tracking through serial quantity their Eurekas at the particular rear of enemy lines are usually found in RG 226, Entry 1190, Box 96, Folder 91. OSS London in addition tracked Eurekas inside France. Pertaining To example, see OSS Jedburgh Team Hugh, Radio Message to be able to London, 14 June 1944, RG 226, Entry 103, Box 3, Folder 82.

(29.) Minutes involving Unique Forces Headquarters, Secret, 8 June 1944, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 357, Folder 357.

(30.) OSS in addition employed SOE's ten-day reception committee school. See Maj. C. A. Pitre, Chief, training Program, OSS/SO Branch, Final Progress Document with regard to period 1-9 December 1944, RG 226, Entry 92, Box 549, Folder 19.

(31.) Lt. Orlan, 2677th Regiment, OSS, Memo, Eureka Operations, 17 November 1944, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 96, Folder 91; and also OSS Communications Office, to end up being able to Lt. Cave, 2677th Regiment, OSS, Message, 17 December 1944, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 96, Folder 91. OSS commands remained unaware that inside September 1944 the particular CCB had approved your release of almost all radar beacon technology to each as well as every along with every part of the particular Alliance including resistance groups. Discover Maj. Gen. J. A. Ulio, Policy about release involving Radar Equipment and also Information, Secret, 22 September 1944, RG 111, Entry 1024, Box 1528, Folder "Radar Equipment # 9, Portion two of 2." Eureka destruction certificates for the 2677th Regiment, OSS, are located inside RG 226, Entry 190, Box 96, Folder 91.

(32.) Lt. F. McDonough, 2677th Regiment, OSS, Request for Eureka Equipment, Secret, 16 November 1944, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 96, Folder 91, as well as Lt. H. H. Proctor, OSS SI Branch London in order to Lt. Col. K. T. Downs, Air Dispatch, Secret, 17 may 1944, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 290, Folder 1283.

(33.) Lt. Cave to Maj. V. A. Abrignani, 2677th Regiment, OSS, Memo, 18 December 1944, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 96, Folder 91; Lt. Cave, 2677th Regiment, OSS, Unique Operations Memorandum: Air supply Operations, Secret, 25 February 1945, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 93, Folder 66; Lt. Cave to Maj. C. J. Eubank, 2677th Regiment, OSS, Eurekas, Secret, 2 March 1945, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 96, Folder 91; along with SOE report, D/BT's Progress report for April, 1945, RG 226, Entry 148, Box 84, Folder 1220.

(34.) Inside August 1944, TM11-1145, Beacon Transmitter-Receiver AN/PPN-2, 37, initial highlighted the actual insufficient Eureka Morse important use. The problem additionally surfaced in late-War Italy. see Lt. Cave for you to Maj. Eubank, 2677th Regiment, OSS, Eurekas, 2 March 1945, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 96, Folder 91.

(35.) Lost container reports are usually found all through particular forces Jedburgh aider-action reports positioned in RG 226, Entry 103, Boxes 1-4. SAS Eureka container losses throughout France during June 1944 are usually cited in Maj. O. A. Elwes, Statement in Operation Lost, Secret, June 1944, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 328, Folder 7; Wellsted, SAS Together With your Maquis, 50; along with McCue, SAS Operation Bulbasket, 25.

(36.) Jedburgh Team Gerald After-Action Report, 18 July 1944, RG 226, Entry 103, Box 3, Folder 46.

(37.) Maj. William E. Colby, Norso Operational Group, OSS for you to Lt. Col. H. H. Skabo, Scandinavian Section, OSS/SO, Burial regarding Personnel of Plane Jones, Secret, 30 April 1945, RG 226, Entry 115, Box 51, Folder 654. In The Actual course Of your 1970's, Colby would head your Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

(38.) Reference for you to Dawes' capture and their use of your Eureka is in Dawes to OSS Base Caserta, Radio Message, 22 October 1944, RG 226, Entry 154, Box 42, Folder 642; as well as OSS Base Bari for you to OSS Base Caserta, Radio Message, Secret, 2 February 1945, RG 226, Entry 154, Box 42, Folder 642. Tacoma's loss involving their Eureka towards the SS is actually inside a postwar debrief by Tacoma's radio operator. Observe Cpl. O. M. Silsby, Company A, 2671st special Reconnaissance Battalion, OSS, Document in the Tacoma Mission, n.d. [approximately July 1945], RG 226, Entry 143, Box 11, Folder 145. Loss of Battle's equipment is at G. M. Proctor, 2677th Regiment, OSS, to always be able to Commanding General, HQ, MATAF, Eureka, Secret, 19 March 1945, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 96, Folder 91; and in OSS Operational Group Battle in order to 2677th Regiment, OSS, Radio Message, 7 April 1945, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 160, Folder 1109.

(39.) Lt. Shanklin, 35th Squadron, 51st Troop Carrier Wing, U.S. AAF, Radar report for Missions, Secret, 26 February 1945, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 96, Folder 91.

(40.) Cpl. Silsby, Statement of the Tacoma Mission, RG 226, Entry 143, Box 11, Folder 145.

(41.) Der Reichsfuehrer SS Reichssicherheitshauptamt, Amt IV Gr. 4 B, Agenten u Sabotageschulen Der Feindlaender, Geheim, 13 June 1944 [reissue of Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) Amt Abwehr, Abt.Abw.III, 19 April 1944], T-77, Roll 1503, frames 14-38; as well as Oberkommando des Heeres, Fremde Heere West, Organisation die amerikanischen N.D., 5 December 1944, T-78, Roll 705 Frames 43-58. after your war an OSS statement stated, "the Germans knew just about all about the Harrington Team and also what it really was doing." Observe OSS Operations Report, DIP, SI, ETO, Division of Intelligence Procurement, Air Operations Section Final Report, 7 June 1945, Secret, RG 226, Entry 146, Box 230, Folder 3245.

(42.) Guido Zembsch-Schrieve, Pierre Lalande: special Agent, trans. John Brownjohn (London: Leo Cooper, 1996), 120. An OSS-compiled history estimated that will Germans captured 15-20% associated with provides dropped straight into France. See OSS Aid to the French Resistance inside world War H, undated, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 241, Folder 1. Many in the captured containers contained radio equipment. Notice Abwehr III F West, increased dropping associated with enemy agents, arms, ammunition, along with explosives about occupied French territory [OSS translation], Secret, eight March 1944, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 292, Folder 1350.

(43.) Operational group Louise Operational Report, Company "B" 2671st Unique Reconnaissance Battalion Separate, (Prov.), Grenoble, France, twenty September 1944, Secret, RG 226, Entry 154, Box 162, Folder 2770.

(44.) OSS Team Lobo for you to OSS Base Florence, Radio Message, Secret, 5 March 1945, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 158, Folder 1089; OSS Operational Group Battle to 2677th Regiment, OSS, Radio Message, Secret, 18 April 1945, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 160, Folder 1109; as well as OSS Capt. Jules Konig to HQ Co. a 2677th Regiment, OSS, Interrogation involving Johann Sanitzer, Confidential, 30 June 1945, RG 226, Entry 124, Box 26, Folder 194. By 1944, German intelligence acknowledged set up Signal Corps ground to air signal patterns, as well as other supply processes down for the color-codes of supply parachutes. see the particular number of 1943 along with 1944 German Airforce intelligence studies simply by Fuehrungsstabe Ic, Fremde Luftwaffen West, Einzelnachrichten des Ic Dienstes West as well as G.B.-US.A. Fallschirm-und Luftlandetruppen, within T-321, Rolls 98-102.

(45.) Oberstleutnant Reile, OKW, Leitstelle Abwehr III West an Verteiler, Einfluege feindlicher Spezialistenflugzeuge im Monat Maerz 44, Geheim, 3 Could 1944 as well as Einfluege feindlicher Spezialistenflugzeuge im Monat April 44, Geheim, 4 June 1944, T-77, Roll 1515, Simply No Frame #s. This paper cites these couple of pertinent intelligence documents which escaped destruction by Berlin's intelligence services. a review of the subject indices involving intercepted Abwehr message traffic, located in the United Kingdom's Public Records Office, doesn't suggest the presence involving deciphered Abwehr messages on details such as the Eureka beacon.

(46.) OKW, WFST/A.Ausl.Abw./Abt.Abw.III/I/Ag WNV/ Fu, Behandlung vor erbeutetem Agenten-Funkgeraet und Funkbetriebsunterlagen, Geheime Kommandosache, 14 April 1943, T-175, Roll 404, Frames 2926931-940. The SS issued comparable instructions. Discover Chef der Sicherheitspolizei, Sichergestellte Waffen, Munition und Sabotagemittel, Geheim, 15 September 1943, T-175, Roll 254, Frames 2746880-882; and SS Pz. Div. "Das Reich," Agenten-Kleinfunkgeraete, 26 June 1944 [reissue of "Panzergruppe West" 22 April 1944 directive], T-354, Roll 129, Frames 3765843-844. Regarding Luftwaffe authority, notice OKL, Fuehrungstabe IC, Vorschrift fuer die Sicherung yon Luftwaffengefangenen Beutepapieren und Beutegeraet, 31 October 1944, T-283, Roll 75, Frames 4575237-254.

(47.) OKL Ic, Einzelnachrichten des Ic Dienstes West der Luftwaffe, Nr 55, Geheim, 19 June 1944, T-321, Roll 1001, Frame 651; and Einzelnachrichten des Ic Dienstes West der Luftwaffe, Nr 60, Geheim, 7 July 1944, T-321, Roll 101, Frame 737.

(48.) Einzelnachrichten, Nr. 62, Geheim, 15 August 1944, T-321, Roll 101, Frames 767-790.

(49.) Einzelnachrichten, Nr. 76, Geheim, eight October 1944, T-321, Roll 101, Frame 1074. on Berlin's many fighting intelligence services, observe David Kahn, Hitler's Spies: German Military Intelligence inside world War H (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1978), passim. Kahn also addresses intelligence exchanges between Berlin and Tokyo, plus it can become done in which Japan received routine radio and radar countermeasure information collected by Berlin. Examples of German radar technologies passed to Tokyo have been in Brown, a Radar History of World War H, 135-40.

(50.) SFHQ Staff Report, Cipher, 28 June 1944, Vol. I, June 6th-30th 1944, 45-50, RG 226, Entry 103, Box 2, Folder 5. Bullbasket's lost Eureka is in McCue, SAS Operation Bullbasket, 25.

(51.) Einzelnachrichten, Nr. 80, Geheim, 18 November 1944, T-321, Roll 225, Zero Frame #s.

(52.) With Regard To an example of the employment involving "fixed" Eureka sites, see Clark, Agents Through Moonlight: the Secret History associated with RAF Tempsford During world War H, 221. Clark refers towards the ground-based Eureka as "Rebecca."

(53.) OKL Ic, Vernichtung yon besonders wichtigen Bodenstellen feindlicher UKW Navigations-und Zielfindungsverfahren durch Sabotage-Trupps des RSHA, Geheime Kommandosache, 24 October 1944, T-321, Roll 100, Frames 195-202. Amongst the actual Allied radio as well as radar beacon systems Berlin targeted had been the greater "Gee" and "Oboe" stations moved to Europe following your Normandy landings. These powerful systems provided navigation aid regarding Allied bombers. See Brown, Any Radar History associated with Globe War II, 322.

(54.) SS-Gruppenfuehrer Mueller, Reichssicherheitshauptamt, Einsatz von Einheiten des britishehen Unique Air service (SAS), Geheim, 23 January 1945, T-175, Roll 649, no Frame #s.

(55.) Reichsluftfahrtministerium, Leistelle der Funkaufklaerung, Zusammenstellung bisher aufgetretener Feindstoerungen an deutschen Boden-und Bord-FuMG, Geheime Kommandosache, 7 February 1945, T-177, Roll 20, Frames 3706102, 3706112 & 3706115.

(56.) Lt. Cave for you to Maj. Abrignani, 2677th Regiment, OSS, Memo, 18 December 1944, RG 226, Entry 190, Box 96, Folder 91.

(57.) Figures involving captured personnel in Holland and France can easily be found inside Giskes, London Calling North Pole, 122; McCue, SAS Operation Bulbasket, 215-16; and also West, Secret War: The Tale regarding SOE, Britain's Wartime Sabotage Organization, 126-30.

Chris Burton spent two years in the US. National Archives before joining the particular Middle regarding Naval Analyses almost 30 a prolonged time ago as any possible Details Security Analyst. Following CNA's reorganization as The Actual CNA Corporation, a nonprofit research and analyses organization, he became its current Security Manager. He has created essays with regard to details security newsletters and has contributed for the journal Military Review. He holds a bachelor's diploma coming from Northern Arizona University Or College as well as a master's degree in the College involving Maryland, each throughout Modern European History. Your opinions expressed in this article are your type of the author.


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Im trying to install a casino game pertaining to my friend and says a person must ran your Steam client? how may i acquire individuals to play the bingo as well as reach lvl 20?? Do anyone cry when I beat you within Battleship? ;) Had Been anyone actually friends with somebody who sucked with Battleship? ;P Do you need a new Battleship Rematch? who can you like to challenge in order to a game of Battleship? Will my laptop end up being able to run skyrim? I have got 4gb ddr3 ram,nvidia geforce gt 420m cuda 1gb with an i5 core and have windows 7, Can Be this fangame available? Solitaire, Minesweeper, or Pinball? Carry out you prefer Planetside as well as battlefield more? Or Even are a person currently a rebel and also just like both? Are Generally that an individual simply PC gamer?! 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I would become a large fan with the original along with it's OFP2 can be in Australia next month Can anybody play the existing game call Transport Tycoon Deluxe? Midnight club 2 pc problems. menus keep shifting and not allowing me choose. How do I add my picture for you to my mafia wars profile upon facebook? I tried to play Moment of Silence upon pc however the starforce protection system won't work about vista. How may I find about this problem? May you employ more then 1 X2 EXP G Coin item inside Soldier Front? If an individual dont know, please GTFO and dont answer. How can i affect the language upon pizza connection 2? i would like english plz help I possess downloaded your witcher flash wwe immortals mod mod1.0.1 & played the sport everything seems to be well nevertheless after sometime geralt isn't taking a few objects into his inventory such as goose body fat & the most thing to move upon the 2nd level which is CALCIUM EQUAM While is actually Postal 3 pertaining to PC planning to come out? Your Postal series can become a excellent series. I want to play since the Postal Dude a amount of more. I need lots of GORE DUDE. It has been supposed in order to turn out final year, however it didn't. TELL ME NOW!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! How to play "Master associated with Orion 2" in the window? How Can One convince My Stubborn Father For You To let Me Play world regarding Warcraft Again, Or Even convince My Equally Stubborn Mother To Aid Me How can you defeat personal computer Terran with Zerg within Starcraft 1 Brood War? Supreme commander keeps crashing, Error message below. Whats happening? Whenever loading 'SWAT 4 - the Stetchkov Syndicate', I realize that the particular loading occasion (to load the particular game, not really your missions) is incredibly long, upto ten minutes, and absolutely nothing happens during the majority of it (screen should go black). Will Be this typical and it is there a new perform around? Throughout 'Tron 2.0' (pc), what may be the highest edition amount you can obtain? .... our greatest ended up being V-9.8.1 Provides anyone here played the RTS, Paraworld? What'd you believe regarding it? How do you delete flooring within the sims 2? A New garage door about the Sims 2 reduced on my small sim.. and in which he didn't die, he could be just standing there, it wont i want to delete the garage door cause it truly is "to shut to the sim", however it wont allow me to transfer him either.. anybody know any ways to obtain him outta there? lol I not too long ago installed Starcraft as well as Brood Wars to my PC plus it keeps crashing when I make an effort to play it, freezing my screen up. This acts the identical approach despite patching it. Anybody know very well what could be the situation here? How can you delete walls from your sims two in houses that i failed to build.. similar to ones which the game previously had in it? That here is playing quake live? who will be going to get the new Nancy Drew PC game?? comes out your 14th regarding July!!! Woooo!! =] Could any person give me the password sheet for that Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1989) Dos game? After I play the sport it gives me correspondence and a number, nevertheless I lost the sheet to be able to allow me to in. Is Actually Left 4 Dead better than Killing Floor? How do I obtain 100,000,000np about neopets? What's the actual greatest point and click game? if you can, would you send me the link? any one esle continue rtw on-line ? if so wha ya name on it a give a match lol Just About Any hints concerning obtain the jetpack flyng throughout Nancy Drew Haunting of Castle Malloy? I published out the actual instructions from your plates, but it keeps blowing up! Please aid me! How do I fix this error (or what each along with every you would like to be able to contact it) upon PCLinuxOS 2009.1- Striving to end up being able to install world of Warcraft? 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What may be the very best arena of warcraft class and why? what will be the greatest DPS class as well as why? what may end up being the greatest tanking class along with why? what will be the very best healing class and why? i would like to make any tank and a healer and wish to know what ppl feel and maby attempt a fresh dps I didnt actually purchase the wrath in the lich king for WoW yet, therefore what's it like? is it much better or perhaps a whole lot worse that the burning crusade Perform you believe Globe regarding Warcraft will be destroying peoples minds? In case Minesweeper stood a theme song, wouldso would the actual tune go and an amount its lyrics be? I installed my red alert three on two computers and i desired to play LAN together with my friend however it said it can not play making use of the identical serial quantity is there any method to review this? does anyone know exactly where I could have the "Need pertaining to Speed Prostreet" Lithium extender pack? You will find a few sites that *used* to get it, but I can't locate one now (not file sharing sites- the actual download had been free associated with charge and also legal). Does one play Virtual Villagers? Which In Turn in the games? Carry out you believe u can require a Zergling inside a fight? (i'd find slaughtered! Laceration city, here' come!) Can Be thief a good game Which zero s an excellent website to always be able to download scarface with regard to pc along with straightforward instalation Help, I can't discover the last best proper treasure throughout Totem Tribe Game.. can anyone Please Help? Will anybody recognize where i can buy YO JIN BO for your PC every one involving the sites i examine say its out of stock as well as unavailable Throughout the game Totem Tribe, I'm in the really final level, why don't I possess the Ice Tower? 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I come with an NVIDIA GeForce 7800 LE about Windows XP SP3 along with played the particular demo pertaining to Tomb Raider: Underworld, but lags and also pauses inside among horribly along with average, but another legend motor games function FINE. SO how do i fix this with out getting an expensive 9800? The purpose why do we still get Minesweeper on our PCs? Arent they will the Model T of PC games? Why am I acquiring this error message when I try to install NFS-Carbon??? Please figure out soon, coz I just bought the overall game and I wanna determine I ought to exhange it for another. Basically dont get it done soon, I'll shed my money! (chk my answer pertaining to error pic) in the actual MMORPG 2nd Life, really does every person have to possess an avatar associated with an adult or perhaps can anyone choose the avatar of a little one if they wanted to? 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HELP!!!how do u beat koreans in aoe2???!!!?

best Answer: Attempt playing like a different civilisation, or if you do not want to, my best guidance will be in order to bulid som etrebuchets, get some archers about stand ground and perhaps some infantry guarding them, then send the particular trebuchets in order to attack the actual weakest point inside the swamp attack unlimited coins wall, when almost all protection are usually ruined, send a large army swarming through, and merely swamp them, remaining as distant from the walls as possible. Although they're distracted with most the army, acquire your own trebuchets to always be able to finsih in the towers.

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FOOTBALL: FIGHT CLUB; THE TREBLE DIARIES Eck's heroes showed their true feelings by getting tore into each other.

The objective we

lost had been shocking contemplating just how we had defended but we

didn't obtain inside at your rear of Celtic as a lot as I might have liked.

In your month or therefore ahead involving the match I'd been forced to chop

and alter so we had a couple of guys off the particular boil.

18/05/03 Hearts...0 Rangers...2

This was obviously a rewarding win due to the elements and the state regarding the

park. Anyone can't

expect great pitches along with flowing football all the time.

We had 3 games to end up being able to go before this - video games that made the decision the


04/05/03 Dundee..2 Rangers..2

It have been a hard season and everything had been really close.

08/03/03 Celtic....1 Rangers.....0

Decisions went against us. A Person don't get voted Players' Player of

the Yr if you never have bottle.

I felt entirely drained and also that features been the truth by incorporating regarding the

players about the day.

I thanked God there were absolutely no injuries afterwards because in which was

the kind of pitch where you could get turned an ankle or even twisted a


19/03/03 Rangers...2 M'well...0

It's bottle. they looked gilt-edged

and you've to take ones such as that. Mikel Arteta was by means of and also taken out.

There was obviously a penalty against us. I asked Fernando Ricksen regarding it but

there wasn't much of a reaction.

After the general game the players were battling along with arguments had been raging.

I couldn't get oneself a term in.

In the second half we had chances to acquire it. Your players reacted brilliantly as well as deserve praise

after your stick they will took coming from our defeat.

It proved to the boss that they will had the actual spirit to aid keep on course with regard to the


It was a measure in our bottle that we had turned it our means by the

last moments of crucial league games and also in the Scottish Cup Final.

Barry Ferguson looked just like a man on the mission. but we showed

fantastic spirit we may not have stood a yr or 1 . 5 years ago.

23/03/03 Scot Cup Dun'line 1 Rangers 1

The first trophy involving the summer season as well as such a method to bounce back again from

the prior week. I usually heroes charge hack apk knew Celtic

would keep coming back with us and many types of credit rating to them.

But it showed they are passionate when things aren't going

our way that's the least we demand.

We had been one slip-up coming from heading out in the Cup. Nevertheless the actual players

showed fantastic character.

I were built using a great feeling in the dressing room and always felt this was

going being our night. I didn't want to check far in advance since it

may have got proved to be any case involving consequently close to yet up to now yet we could now

look forward to some Scottish Cup semi.

15/02/03 Rangers...1 Hearts...0

What went by means of my head when Shota Arveladze missed his penalty?

Apart from punching him, I believed the actual title may be drifting away from


But every person inside the facet has been unstoppable simply because they will knew the thing which was at


This game was played with an extremely poor surface to possess an SPL match

- not good enough.

They gave us any scare and also broke using belief and pace. That was three superb

points so we scored 2 fantastic goals.

I stored telling the lads from your touchline they couldn't go on

missing chances just like that. Thank heaven with regard to Ronald de Boer.

Eck looked in in astonishment as his furious players got tore in

about each other - simply because these people couldn't hack winning through just one

goal against Hearts.

27/04/03 Rangers....1 Celtic....2

09/04/03 Scot Cup R'gers three Dun'line 0

16/03/03 CIS final R'gers two Celtic 1

Scottish Cup Final Dundee 0 Rangers 1

05/04/03 Rangers...2 Partick...0

If Celtic had scored once again to produce it 5-0 and that will we had missed the

penalty that might are already sufficient pertaining to these to get the league title.

. That's part of what it takes to be a new winner. Overall, I

was happy with the performance.

But Shota played his part by providing the cross for any fantastic

opener via Ronald de Boer and also it absolutely was an excellent header.

22/02/03 Scot Cup Ayr 0 Rangers 1

I were required to credit the character Motherwell showed because many teams

would have got crumbled following conceding a young goal.

13/04/03 Dundee Utd 1 Rangers 4

It had been nervous occasionally and I had been aware Celtic choose in order to go 3-0 up and

were again at the top simply by virtue associated with goal difference. That Will ended up being certainly 1 of the particular greatest performances I've

enjoyed as Rangers manager.

19/04/03 Scot Cup Rangers 4 M'well 3

It is not really any disgrace to get rid of to a team such as Celtic.

A expert occupation but sometimes have been more ruthless. We were delighted to become within the CIS

Cup Final as well as the players deserved praise.

29/01/03 Hibs..........0 Rangers..........2

02/03/03 Livingston 1 Rangers 2

08/02/03 Dunfermline.....1 Rangers.....3

01/02/03 Rangers......2 Aberdeen......1

11/05/03 Rangers 4 Kilmarnock 0

I had been starting to wonder again if it has been not to become our year.

I was ready to adopt Michael Mols off since he'd just missed

a opportunity and I believed it has been not his day.

Barry Ferguson hadn't scored for a few weeks after getting a great

season. However his free- kick was a peach. We looked quite fresh as well as I was

pleased after that draining cup final against Celtic.

04/02/03 CIS semi Rangers one Hearts 0

We produced sufficient chances to take some thing using this game nevertheless it

went horribly wrong within the very first half.

A draw had been the actual best we could get got from this one. Barry Ferguson missed a new couple

of penalties nevertheless Julian Speroni made a excellent conserve in his second kick and

Barry struck the really first firmly therefore he would end up being a bit disappointed.

We lacked energy and also sparkle during the sport and there were times

when I felt it just wasn't heading to become our day. This just didn't select us.

That was obviously a fantastic effort again. In spite of being kicked almost all over the

pitch Ronald de Boer is at fantastic form.

This felt like my greatest moment in the game.

With the actual spirit they'd proven just about all season we could do not have ruled

them out.

25/01/03 Scot Cup Arbroath 0 Rangers 3

ALEX McLEISH clinched the coveted treble throughout his initial full season

in charge with Ibrox.

But an individual don't know with strikers and just as we were getting Shota

Arveladze ready, Michael scored.

25/05/03 Rangers six Dun'line 1

Terry Butcher place out a younger side which ran their particular legs off and gave

us a new real fright.

This week, McLeish concludes the tale of the approach the Treble has been won.

Eck confirmed he had been up because regarding it too when he felt just like PUNCHING Shota

Arveladze pertaining to lacking a new penalty from the Jambos because the title race

approached its climax. However his men stored their particular cool and when the particular dust

settled had won three trophies within the most dramaticfashion.

But he knew in February that his men had the particular guts for you to go almost all the


I has been thus pleased. We had the best

chances and a few scares


Bernie Sanders calls investigation of Hillary Clinton's emails 'valid'

She features no reason to punch down now that things are relocating your ex means by regards to endorsements, superdelegates, and the lot importantly poll numbers.

This is a ridiculous error which Hillary may flay him using subsequent week. This wouldn't automatically lead for the White House, but he needed to recognize going into this that being elected President was a extremely remote possibility.

Now he freaks out because Hillary is shifting in advance in the polls virtually everywhere. Democrats united against his or her enemies about the right as well as within the media would become a fantastic story.

Bernie Sanders calls investigation of Hillary Clinton's emails 'valid'. He ended up being a lot far better off getting taken this issue Minions Paradise Hack Apk out in the debate. Perhaps someone as cynical as myself felt a new heat glow when he has been quoted saying that he as well as the American individuals were tired of the endless media coverage in the e-mails.

Bernie is already losing your endorsement war, big time. This can push more Democrats in to endorsing Hillary for you to counterbalance Bernie's attacks. Almost All he had to do ended up being continue to adopt the particular higher highway throughout his campaign. It's probably the initial thing he will get inquired about.

We tend to be viewing how Bernie behaves beneath pressure and he's certainly not passing the particular test.

I don't observe how this can help Bernie. I believed he came off brilliantly in the debate. In case he throws any punch, he'll further damage the particular status he spent decades building up. That may well harm Clinton inside the General Election, however, not just just as much as it'll Bernie's political future.

The handshake with Hillary - although the lady seemed in order to initiate that will gesture - ended up being very touching. Therefore he recants his best moment at the debate, says he didn't have enough time as well as power to determine whether he was a man associated with principle.

It's crazy regarding him for you to recant his dismissal in the bogus investigation directly into Hillary's e-mails. It's the fight in between Republicans as well as Democrats. Clinton will likely not respond. He can't aspect using the Republicans and which he has become significantly out of step with just about all the Democrats.

Bernie had guaranteed himself a new spot as getting a progressive hero. It will garner huge press coverage between now and then. When he doesn't, he'll seem rather vacillating and also uncertain


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